Articles for further reading around corneal staining and related topics are freely available to download.


Hom M. The New Math of Corneal Staining. Contact Lens Spectrum, March 2007; 44-46.

Karpecki P. Much Ado about Staining. Review of Optometry, November 2006; 135-136.

Levy B. Infectious Keratitis: What have we Learned? Eye & Contact Lens, August 2007; 33(6): 1-1.

Snyder C. Solution Interaction with the Ocular Surface: The Significance in Making the Grade. Clinical & Refractive Optometry, 2005; 16:5, 134-140. Copyright Mediconcept 2005.

Nichols K. et al. Corneal Staining in Hydrogel Lens Wearers. Optometry and Vision Science, 2002; 79,1; 20-30.

Ward K. Superficial Punctate Fluorescein Staining of the Ocular Surface. Optometry and Vision Science; 2008; 85:1, 8-16.

Norn MS. Micropunctate fluorescein vital staining of the cornea. Acta Ophthalmol 1970;48: 108–18.

Schwallie JD, McKenney CD, Long WD, McNeil A. Corneal staining patterns in normal non-contact lens wearers. Optom Vis Sci1997;74:92–8.

Korb DR, Korb JM. Corneal staining prior to contact lens wearing. J Am Optom Assoc 1970;41: 228–32.

Caffery BE, Josephson JE. Corneal staining after sequential instillations of fluorescein over 30 days. Optom Vis Sci 1991;68: 467–9.

Josephson JE, Caffery BE. Corneal staining characteristics after sequential instillations of fluorescein. Optom Vis Sci 1992;69: 570–3.

Dundas M, Walker A, Woods RL. Clinical grading of corneal staining of non-contact lens wearers. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2001;21: 30–5.

Efron N. Grading Scales for contact lens complications. Appendix A. In: Contact lens Complications, Second Edition. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford 2004 pp. 239-243.

Terry RL et al. CCLRU standards for success of daily and extended wear contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. March 1993.

Bergmanson J. Interpretation of Corneal Staining on your Patient and in the Literature. Nordic Vision 6, 2006, 8-9.

Carnt NT et al. Corneal Staining: The IER Matrix Study. Contact Lens Spectrum, September 2007.

Morgan P. Contact Lens Compliance and Reducing the Risk of Keratitis. Optician, 2007.

Dillehay SM & Cutter G. A Statistical Analysis of the Staining Grid. Contact Lens Spectrum, November 2007.

Levy B & Orsborn G. Clinical Risks: Myths and Truths. Interpreting the evidence-based data about contact lens care. Contact Lens Spectrum, January 2008.

www.staininggrid.com. Accessed January 2008.

Mowrey-McKee M et al. Comparative cytotoxicity potential of soft contact lens care regimens, The CLAO Journal, 2002; 28(3): 160-164.

McCanna D et al. Use of a human corneal epithelial cell line for screening the safety of contact lens care solutions in vitro. Eye & Contact Lens, 2008; 34;1: 6-12.

Tchao R et al. Comparison of contact lens multipurpose solutions by in vitro sodium fluorescein permeability assay. The CLAO Journal, 2002; 28:3:151-156.

Bantseev V, McCanna D, Driot J-Y, Ward K, Sivak, J: Biocompatibility of Contact Lens Solutions Using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and the In Vitro Bovine Cornea. Eye and Contact Lens, 33 (6, Part 1 of 2): 308-316.

Proven Performance in Soft Lens Care: Assessing the Biocompatibility of Lens Care Solutions.

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